It is likely that technology will play a role in all of the other clusters, but there is merit in exploring the specific affordances of technology for promoting language learner autonomy. We take the view that learning should be at the forefront of technology use and we are interested in exploring the roles of apps, technology-based media / tools, AR, VR, and technology-based systems for effective learning management and the development of learner autonomy. Technology-based projects may require equipment, so please keep in mind that our operating budget is currently limited. If you are interested in proposing or collaborating on a project related to technology, please indicate possible funding options such as national grants.

Current research projects

Peer collaboration and learner autonomy in online interaction (SALC-19-1)

Ward Peeters and Jo Mynard, Kanda University of International Studies

The aim of this research project is to study and harness the networking power of online collaboration tools in language learning environments of higher education. Online peer interactions of students taking SALC modules and courses will be analysed.

Online Machine Translation for Independent EFL: An Empirical Evaluation (SALC-18-T1)
Paul Moore (University of Queensland, Australia), Philip Murphy, Scott Sustenance, and Louann Pascucci (Kanda University of International Studies)

This study investigates the interaction between language learner, technology and task in evaluating the affordances of Google Translate in speaking task performance (Chapelle, 2001; Chapelle & Jamieson, 2008), to ascertain how the technology mediates task performance in a Japanese university context, across tasks of varying complexity.

Creating an app for self-access materials recommendations (AR_recs_2017)
Curtis Edlin and Euan Bonner, Kanda University of International Studies

This project involves the creation and evaluation of a custom-made app for supporting self-access materials selections and recommendations.

Creating an AR app for an enhanced self-access tour (AR_tour_2017)
Euan Bonner and Erin Frazier, Kanda University of International Studies

This project involves the creation and evaluation of a custom-made augmented reality app for conducting interactive SALC tours.

AR and micro-motivation (AR_motiv_2017)
Euan Bonner, Kanda University of International Studies
Hayo Reinders, Unitec, New Zealand

This project involves the investigation of a purpose-built AR tool used to allow learners to record their motivation.

Proposing an integrated system for managing self-directed language learning (SDL_app_2017)
Charlotte Lin, Kanda University of International Studies

This project builds on previous ones (APP1_2014-2016) which designed, created and evaluated an app for self-directed language learning. The questions for this project are (1) What can we learn from the previous app? (2) What does the literature say about SDL app design?

Fostering Self-Regulated Learning through the Use of Technology
Olga Viberg, Anna Mavroudi, Jarmo Laaksolahti, Jo Mynard, Charlotte Lin

The aim of the project is to understand opportunities and challenges for designing effective technology-supported solutions to foster self-regulated learning.

Space, time and social presence in an autonomous language learning (SALC-18-3) 
Paul Moore, Jo Mynard, Isra Wongsarnpigoon, Kie Yamamoto

This study investigates the affordances of a language learning community, including online and offline instructional and interactional resources and spaces, for learners of English-as-a-foreign-language undertaking a 15-week course in learning autonomy

Publications related to technology and autonomy (selected)

Bonner, E., & Frazier, E. (2018). Creating an augmented reality app for an enhanced self-access tour. Relay Journal, 1(1), 247-254.

Castellano, J., Mynard, J., & Rubesch, T. (2011). Student technology use in a self-access centre. Language Learning and Technology, 15(3), 12-27. Retrieved from

Edlin, C., & Bonner, E. (2018). Augmented reality and crowdsourced feedback to help learners navigate self-access materials. Relay Journal, 1(2) 429-440.

Lammons, E., Momata, Y., Mynard, J., Noguchi, J., & Watkins, S. (2016). Developing and piloting an app for managing self-directed language learning: an action research approach. In F. Helm, L. Bradley, M. Guarda, & S. Thouësny (Eds.), Critical CALL – Proceedings of the 2015 EUROCALL Conference, Padova, Italy (pp. 342-347). doi:10.14705/rpnet.2015.000356

Manning, C., Morrison, B. R., & McIlroy, T. (2014). MOOCs in language education and professional teacher development: Possibilities and potential. Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal, 5(3), 294-308. Retrieved from

McLoughlin, D., & Mynard, J. (2009). An analysis of higher order thinking in online discussions. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 46(2), 147-160. Retrieved from

Moore, P. J., Murphy, P., Pascucci, L., & Sustenance, S. (2019). Machine translation for EFL. Relay Journal, 2(1), 228-235.

Moore, P. J., Mynard, J., Wongsarnpigoon, I., & Yamamoto, K. (2019). Autonomy and interdependence in a self-directed learning course. Relay Journal, 2(1), 218-227.

Mynard, J. (2017). Investigating social presence in a social networking environment. In K. Van de Poel & C. Ludwig (Eds.). Collaborative language learning and new media: Insights into an evolving field (pp. 276-293). Germany: Peter Lang.

Mynard, J., & Murphy, P. (2012). An investigation into offering flexible language courses utilising blended learning. Studies in Linguistics and Language Teaching, 23, 101-137.

Mynard. J., & Troudi, S. (2014). The Internet chat room: A tool for promoting learner autonomy. In R. Al Mahrooqi & S. Troudi (Eds.), Using technology in foreign language teaching (pp. 162- 184). Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. (Link to Google Books)

Mynard, J., & Yamamoto, K. (2018). User perceptions of an app for managing self-directed language learning. Relay Journal, 1(2), 405-428. 

Viberg, O., Laaksolahti, J., Mynard, J., & Mavroudi, A. (2018). Assessing the potential role of technology in promoting self-directed language learning: A collaborative project between Japan and Sweden. Relay Journal, 1(2), 346-359.